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Earring. Metal of wood or ivory worn as decoration by a seafarer long after landlubbers had abandoned them to the ladies. Associated specially with bloody-minded mariners of the piratical type. They often had the anchor device, symbol of the sailorís patron saint, St. Nicholas of Myra (later to be transformed into Santa Claus). It was believed that if a man fell overboard then his earrings with anchor device would save him from drowning; St. Nicholas would put a hook through one of the rings and pluck him out of the sea to safety.

Eccentric. A form of crank in which a circular disc set eccentrically upon a shaft forms at once the crank web and crank pin. Eccentrics are usually made of cast steel or iron and if large are lightened to save weight. They are made in two parts connected by tap bolts and keyed to the crank shaft. Eccentrics are utilized to convert circular to rectilinear motion. The rectilinear travel is usually short relative to the diameter of the crank shaft so the ordinary form of crank is impracticable.

Eccentric Rod. A rod attached to the eccentric strap and designed to drive valves where the travel is less than half that of the piston.

Eccentric Strap. A metal ring fitted round the eccentric disc. It is made in halves and bolted together, provision being made to attach the eccentric rod unless same is cast as part of the strap. The eccentric strap is generally made of cast steel or brass.

Economizers, Boiler. See Boiler Feed Water Heater.

Eddy-making Resistance. See Resistance, Eddy-making.

Edge, Sight. That edge of a strake of shell plating which laps outside another strake and is, therefore, in plain sight.

Effective Horsepower. See Horsepower, Effective.

Effective Length. This term ordinarily indicates the mean length of that portion of the hull below the waterline. The length of a vessel has an important influence upon her resistance. In general, frictional resistance increases with increase in Leigh and residuary or wave-making resistance decreases with increase in length. Certain formulae involving the vesselís length are used for determination of the frictional resistance. These formulae generally produce more accurate results if the mean length of vessel below the waterline is used, and for that reason the foregoing definition in general holds true. In dealing, however, with residuary resistance, a vessel may be so formed as to produce a system of waves similar to the wave system of a vessel of greater length but of ordinary shape, and running at the same speed as the vessel under consideration. In such a case the vessel might be considered to have an augmented length effective for wave making. This augmented length is termed the effective length in speaking of the residuary resistance, but owing to the practical difficulties in the way of estimating any exact or even reasonably approximate value of such an equivalent length, no effort is made toward the formulation of any rule.

Efficiency, Propeller. See Propeller Efficiency.

Efficiency, Turbine. See Turbine Efficiency.

Ejector, Ash. See Ash Ejector.

Ejector, Bilge. See Bilge Ejector.

Electric Arc. See Arc, Electric.

Electric Fan. A small cast iron pedestal supporting an electric motor which operates a small fan. Electric fans are used in staterooms and quarters to circulate the air and keep them from becoming stuffy.

Electric Furnace. See Furnace, Electric.

Electric Gag Control. A mechanism attached to a punching machine for locating the plates as desired and for placing the punch over a center punch mark of the plate.

Electric Generator. See Generator, Electric.

Electric Hoist. See Hoist, Electric.

Electric Light Fixtures, Watertight. Electric light fixtures so arranged that the electrical connections of the circuit are protected by watertight casings.

Electric Motor. See Motor, Electric.

Electric Range. A galley cook stove in which the heat is generated by electricity.

Electric Rivet Heater. A machine in which rivets are heated by an electric current. These machines consist of a specially designed transformer with one or more openings in the secondary winding. The rivet or rivets to be heated are inserted in these openings. Placing the rivets in the openings complete the secondary circuit and the rivets are heated by the current passing through them.

Electric Telemotor. See Telemotor, Electric.

Electric Watertight Plug. See Plug, Watertight Electric.

Electric, Whistle Control. See Whistle Control, Electric.

Electric Wire and Cable. Wire used for conducting electric currents is made from copper, copper alloys, aluminum, iron and steel. Annealed or soft-drawn copper wire has a conductivity higher than any other wire used commercially and is used almost exclusively for all low voltage power requirements. A number of strands of wire twisted or woven together constitute what is known as a cable.

Electricians. Workmen who set up the electric plant and its auxiliaries with their fittings, such as wiring, switchboards, control panels, etc.

Electrolysis, Boiler. See Boiler, Galvanic Action.

Electrolyte. A solution or composition of fused salt in which electrical energy is generated by means of chemical action or in which chemical reaction occurs due to the passing of an electric current through it. The solutions in wet primary batteries and storage batteries, and the fused salts in dry batteries are called electrolytes.

Electromagnet. A magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current passing through a coil of wire wound upon a soft iron core.

End-For-End. To have the wrong end foremost. To place the opposite end where the other end was originally.

End Plate, Stern Tube. See Stern Tube End Plate.

Engine Foundation. A term applied to the girders and brackets supporting an engine. They should be built rigid enough to assimilate the vibration of the engine and to efficiently distribute its weight to the structure of the ship.

Engine Hatch. See Hatch, Engine.

Engine, Inclined. A reciprocating engine in which the cylinders are located at an angle and below the crank shaft. This type is successfully used on lake and river steamers.

Engine, Main. The engine or engines forming the propelling installation as distinguished from auxiliary engines.

Engine, Marine. An engine designed for the propulsion of ships.

Engine, Non-Condensing. An engine from the cylinder of which the exhaust steam passes directly into the atmosphere.

Engine, Oscillating. A reciprocating engine in which the cylinders are located directly below the crank shaft and are swung on trunnions. In this type the piston rod is connected directly to the crank pin so that the connecting rod and cross head are eliminated. This type is successfully used for side wheel paddle steamers.

Engine, Reciprocating. An engine designed to convert the pressure of live steam into work. This is accomplished by means of the backward and forward motion of a piston from end to end of a cylinder as the result of steam being alternately admitted to each end of the cylinder and the expanded steam exhausted from the other end. The straight line motion of the piston is communicated to the piston rod to which it is directly attached and is then transformed into rotary or circular motion by means of suitable mechanism.

Engine Room Bulkhead. See Bulkhead, engine Room.

Engine Room Casing. See Casing, Engine Room.

Engine Room Control Valve, See Valve, Engine Room Control.

Engine, Turning. A small steam engine or an electric motor arranged to turn the main engines over very slowly for purposes of repair, adjustment, etc.

Engineers, Designing. Those engineers, civil, mechanical or naval, who are responsible for the basic features of a design and the general methods by which its details are developed.

Engineers, Operating. Engineers in charge of plant or machinery and responsible for its condition and operation.

Engraving Machine. A machine designed to cut or carve, in sunken patterns, the letters and figures on name plates, label plates, etc. The incision is often filled with black scaling wax to make the engraving clear and distinct.

Ensign. A flag indicative of a vesselís nationality. It is hoisted at the stern.

Ensign Staff. A term applied to a flag pole erected at the stern of a vessel.

Entrance. The forward under water portion of a vessel at or near the bow.

Entrance, Angle of. The angle formed by the center line of a ship and the tangent to the designed waterline at the forward perpendicular.

Ephemerides, Ephemeris. A table giving the computed positions of the celestial body for a given period, such as successive days; also an astronomical calendar or almanac.

Equilibrium, Neutral. The state of equilibrium in which a vessel inclined from its original position of rest by an external force tends to maintain the inclined position assumed after that force has ceased to act.

Equilibrium, Stable. The state of equilibrium in which a vessel inclined from its original position of rest by an external force tends to return to its original position after that force has ceased to act.

Equilibrium, Unstable. The state of equilibrium in which a vessel inclined from its original position of rest by an external force tends to depart farther from the inclined position assumed.

Equivalent Girder. A diagrammatic representation of the disposition of that material in a cross section which contributes to the longitudinal strength of a vessel. Such a diagram visualizes, at once, the manner in which the material is disposed relative to the neutral axis. When any of the members have not the same strength in tension and compression or when regarded as contributing to one and not the other, or when allowance is made for rivet holes in tension but not in compression; then two separate girders must be considered, one for hogging and one for sagging.

Erectors. Workmen who put together and secure fabricated parts to form the structure or machine.

Escape Valve. See Valve, Escape.

Euphroe. A wood block or slat or metal fitting perforated to allow the awning halyards to pass.

Evaporator. An auxiliary for supplying fresh water to make up the loss in boiler feed water. Steam leaks in pipe joints and stuffing boxes may occur. The whistle may be used or the exhaust opened or in some other manner losses of boiler feed water take place. These losses are appreciable and the evaporator must supply the "make up" feed in order to avoid the use of salt water. A typical evaporator consists of a chamber into which boiler steam is passed in coils or nests of tubing. Salt water is admitted into the chamber and is converted into steam which passes over to the condenser or low pressure receiver. The water found in the coils by the loss of heat is returned to the feed.

Evaporator Feed Pump. See Pump, Evaporator Feed.

Evaporator Foundation. A term applied to a foundation supporting an evaporator.

Even Keel. That condition in which a ship floats at her designed draft both forward and aft, or in which her keel line is parallel to its designed position.

Exhaust Fan. A type of fan outfit used to remove dust and smoke from shop buildings ashore. The usual method of construction for fans of this type consists of a metal ring with arms supporting an electric motor, the shaft of which is centered on the ring. The fan is mounted on the motor shaft and is made the full diameter of the ring less a small clearance at the tips of the blades.

Expander, Boiler Tube. See Boiler Tube Expander.

Expansion Hatch. See Hatch, Expansion,

Expansion Joint. A term applied to a joint which permits. linear movement to take up the expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature.

Expansion Tanks. A term applied to the trunkways below the cargo hatches in an oil tanker that are provided for the purpose of allowing the cargo oil to expand.

Expansion Trunk. A trunk extending above a hold for the stowage of liquid cargo. The surface of the cargo liquid is kept well up in the trunk, thus allowing for expansion of the liquid without danger of excessive strain coming on the hull, and allowing for contraction without undue increase in free surface with its accompanying effect upon stability.

Extreme Breadth. See Breadth (Extreme).

Eye. A hole through the head of a needle, pin, bolt, etc., or a loop forming a hole or opening through which something is intended to pass, such as a hook, pin, shaft or rope. Familiar examples are an eye at the end of a tie bar in a bridge truss, an eye at the end of a rope as the parts of shrouds and stays that pass over a masthead. A "worked eye" is one having its edge rounded off like a ring, while a "shackle eye" is drilled straight through, permitting an inserted bolt or pin to bear along its entire length.

Eye Bolt. A bolt having either a head looped to form a worked eye or a solid head with a hole drilled through it forming a shackle eye. Its use is similar to that of a pad eye.

Eyes. The forward end of the space below the upper decks of a ship which lies next abaft the stem, where the sides approach very near to each other. The hawse pipes are usually run down through the eyes of a ship.


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