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F

Fabricate. To shape, assemble and secure in place the component parts in order to form a complete whole. To manufacture.

Fabricated Ship. A ship that is constructed by assembling plates and shapes that have been laid out and formed, without the aid of templates taken from the work during the process of construction. One advantage of this method of construction is that the material may be laid out at the steel mills and shipped to the yards ready for erection.

Face Plate. A plate fitted perpendicular to the web and fastened to the flanges at one edge of a frame, stiffener or girder to compensate for the continuous plating attached to the flanges at the other edge.

Factor of Safety. A design factor such that where multiplied by the allowed working stress for a given material it will give a product equivalent to the ultimate strength of that material. The foregoing defines "factor of safety" as ordinarily used. Strictly speaking and especially for elastic materials this dentition applies only to the "nominal factor of safety." The real factor of safety for design work involving elastic materials is that factor which if multiplied by the allowed working stress will be equal to the stress required to strain the material to its elastic limit. If the nominal factor of safety is used in any case, the real factor of safety for the case in hand is smaller in proportion as the elastic limit of the material is lower than the ultimate strength. For design in such materials as wood, cast iron in compression, and the like, the distinction between nominal and real factor of safety is non-existent.

Fair Curves. Curves which do not in any portions of their entire lengths show changes of direction such as to mark those portions as out of harmony in any respect with the curves as a whole or with the other portions of the curve.

Fairleads. A term applied to fittings that are used to change or preserve the direction of a rope or chain so that it is delivered fairly to a sheave or drum. Large fairleads in the shape of a drum on a vertical shaft are used to deliver a hawser coming through a chock or mooring pipe to a gypsy our a winch or windlass. Fairleads are also used with the steering leads in which case they may be fittings with small sheaves or annular rings. With steering leads the fairleaders are generally more for preserving than changing the line of the ropes.

Fair Line. A term applied to a curved line when it is smooth and without bumps or abrupt breaks in direction. A sweet line.

Fair or Fair Up. To so draw the lines of a vessel that the defined surfaces will show no irregularities throughout their entire extent. To line up the frames to their proper position.

Fair Ship. To keep the ship properly placed on the berth during the building period.

Fairwater. A term applied to plating fitted in the shape of a frustum of a cone, around the ends of shaft tubes and struts to prevent an abrupt change in the stream lines. Also applied at any casting or plating fitted to the hull for the purpose of preserving a smooth flow of water.

Fake. To lay a rope or chain down in long bights side by side or in coils in regular order so that it will run out clear or can be easily and rapidly paid out. Also one complete circle of a coil of rope.

Fall. By common usage the entire length of rope used in a tackle, though a strict adherence to the term would limit its application to the end to which the power is applied. The end secured to the block is called the standing part, the opposite end, the hauling part.

False Keel. See Keel, False.

False Sternpost. See Sternpost, False or Inner.

Fan Exhaust. See Exhaust Fan.

Fan, Induction. See Blower.

Fantail. The stern overhang in vessels which have round or elliptical after endings to uppermost decks and which extend well abaft the after perpendicular.

Farad. The unit of electrostatic capacity. It represents the capacity of a conductor that requires 1 coulomb of electricity to charge it to the potential of 1 volt.

Fascia. A strip of wood used in covering over openings in joiner work.

Fast. A rope or chain used to moor a boat to the wharf. It is designated in accordance with the end of the boat with which it is used as bow-fast or stern-fast.

Fasteners. Men who drive the iron bolts that fasten the parts of a wooden vessel together.

Fastenings. A term applied to bolts, nails, rivets, tree-nails, etc.

Fastenings, Through. A term applied to a fastening that is driven completely through the pieces to be connected.

Fathom. A unit of length used in measuring cordage, depths, etc. The length varies in different countries, being six feet in Great Britain and the United States. This is roughly obtained by extending both arms.

Faucet. A term applied to a valve or cock used to control the flow of a liquid.

Fay. To unite closely two planks or plates so as to bring the surfaces into intimate contact.

Feed Pipe, Boiler, Internal. See Boiler Feed Pipe, Internal.

Feed Pump, Auxiliary. See Pump, Auxiliary Feed.

Feed Pump, Evaporator. See Pump, Evaporator Feed.

Feed Pump, Main. See Pump, Main Feed.

Feed Water, Boiler. See Boiler Feed Water.

Feed Water Heater, Boiler. Sec Boiler Feed Water Heater.

Feed Water Heater Foundation. A term applied to the seating supporting the feed water heater.

Felloes. The pieces of wood composing the rim of a steering wheel.

Fend Off. To prevent a ship or boat frown coming violently in contact with a pier, another ship, or structure.

Fender. This term is applied to various devices fastened to or hung over the sides of a vessel for the purpose of preventing rubbing or chafing.

Ferrule, Condenser Tube. See Condenser Tube Ferrule.

Ferry. A craft used regularly for the transport of cargo or passengers back and forth across a narrow body of water or river. Such a craft may vary in type from a small high speed yacht to a large, heavy scow used in the carriage of fully loaded freight cars.

Fid. A wood or metal bar used to support the weight of a topmast or top-gallant mast when in position, being passed through a hole or mortise at its heel and resting on the trestle trees or other support; a hardwood tapering pin or tool, used by riggers and sail makers to open the strands of a rope, eye, grommet, etc. A "hand fid" is rounder at the ends. A "standing or cringle fid" is larger than a hand fid and has a flat base.

Fidded Topmast. See Topmast, Fidded.

Fiddle Block. See Block, Fiddle.

Fiddlehead. Ornamental carved work on the bows of a sailing ship, culminating in an upward-turning scroll like the head of a violin.

Fidley. Also spelled "Fiddley" A term applied to the top of a boiler casing. Through it pass the smoke stack and boiler room ventilators. The top around the stack and cowls is fitted with gratings made of bar steel with metal covers that can be closed when the weather is very bad.

Fidley Gratings. A term applied to gratings made of bar steel and fitted over the top of the boiler hatch.

Fife Rail; Pin Rail. A term applied to a rail worked around a mast and fitted with holes for belaying pins for securing the running gear.

Figure Head. An ornament, usually the figure of a woman, places on the foremost edge of the stem just below the bowsprit.

Filler Piece. See Liner.

Fillets. A term applied to the metal filling in the bosom or corners where abrupt changes in direction occur in the parts of a casting or forging.

Filling Transoms. See Transoms, Filling.

Filter, Feed Water. An apparatus designed for the removal of oil from boiler feed water, It consists of a suitable connection and a container in which is placed the filtering material. This material may be gravel, sand, or broken stone, etc., or it may he cloth, sponge or similar material. Water may he led through the apparatus by gravity or forced through under pressure. In the latter case provision must be made for relief from excessive pressure should a stoppage in the filter occur.

Fire and Bilge Pump. See Pump, Fire and Bilge.

Fire Boat. A vessel of about the type and size of a large tug, but fitted with all available fire fighting apparatus.

Firemen. Members of a shipís boiler room force who are responsible for the care of the fires under the boilers.

Fire Tube Boiler. See Boiler, Fire tube.

Fireproof Bulkhead. See Bulkhead, Fireproof.

Fireproof Flooring. See Flooring, Fireproof, and also Gratings.

Fish Boom. See Davit, Fish.

Fish Hook. A large hold attached to a stout cable and used on some vessels to take the anchor on board. Also applied to a hook attached to a line and used for the purpose of catching fish.

Fish Pendant. A stout piece of rope or cable having a thimble on one end and a fish hook on the other.

Fish Tackle. A tackle used in pulling an anchor on board from under the cat head.

Fish Tackle Pendant. A rope one end of which is attached to the foremast and the other end to the fish tackle.

Fittings, Pipe. A term applied to the connections and outlets, with the exception of valves and couplings, that are attached to pipes.

Fixed Light. A thick glass, usually circular in shape, fitted in a frame fixed in an opening in a shipís side, deck house or bulkhead. The fixed light is not provided with hinges and serves only to provide access for light.

Flags. Emblems or symbols made of cloth, bunting or silk. They are used to denote the country or company to which a vessel belongs, and also for various signals.

Flags, Signal. Flags used in signaling. These flags symbolize the letters of the alphabet according to code. It is thus possible for one vessel to communicate with another or with a shore station.

Flam. A term often used lo express the meaning as flare, but more properly used to denote the maximum curl or roll given to the flare at the upper part, just below the weather deck.

Flange. The turned edge of a shape or girder which acts to resist a bending movement. A casting or forging which may be attached to a pipe forming a flange or projecting rim suitable for bolting the pipe secure. Some pipe flanges are worked as an integral part of the pipe.

Flange, Blank. Applied to a flange fitting that is complete with the exception of the bolt holes. Also applied to a flat pate or flange that is used to close the end of a pipe.

Flanged Plate. See Plate, Flanged.

Flanging Machine. A machine designed for flanging plate work.

Flanging Machine, Hydraulic. A machine designed to bend or flange long or short plates. It often consists of a heavy cast iron or steel beam actuated in a vertical direction by a number of hydraulic rams. The hydraulic cylinders are supported over the work table by four heavy columns which also serve as guides for the beam.

Flare. The spreading out from the central vertical plane of the forebody of a ship with increasing rapidity as the section rises from the waterline to the rail.

Flare-up Light. See Light, Flare-up .

Flashlight Signal, Electric. The electric flashlight signal is used in conjunction with the electric whistle control. It consists of a cluster of electric lights made into any design and mounted on the masthead above the pilot house and electrically connected to the circuit that operates the whistle control. When the whistle switch is closed in the pilot house to blow the whistle, current is also supplied to the flashlight lamps on the masthead, lighting them in time with the signal given by the whistle. This gives to the eye the same signal that the whistle gives to the ear. Often in heavy winds the whistle signal can not be heard, but the escaping steam carries the message to the eye. The employment of the flash light spells this same message at night when the steam can not he seen.

Flat. A term applied to a partial deck built without any camber.

Flat of Bottom. That portion of a shipís bottom without rise or having a rise without curvature or nearly so.

Flat Plate Keel. See Keel, Flat Plate.

Flat Rope. See Rope, Flat.

Flexible Joint. A pipe joint so constructed that the pipes it connects can turn or bend without leaking. They are usually constructed on the ball and socket principle. Flexible joints in shafting are usually called universal joints.

Floating Dry Dock. See Dry Dock, Floating.

Floating Power. The sum of the utilized buoyancy and the reserve buoyancy of a vessel. Utilized buoyancy is the buoyancy required to counteract the vesselís weight. It is exerted by that portion of the vesselís hull which is below her waterline.

Flood Light. This term is given to a light so arranged as to give a diffused light over a large area. It is directly opposite in purpose to the spot light which is designed to give an intense light over a small area.

Floodable Length. The length of vessel which may be flooded without sinking her below her safety or margin line. The value of the floodable length for a given vessel varies from point to point throughout her length due to change in form. Similarly at a given point it varies from time lo time, depending upon . the permeability of the cargo or condition of loading.

Floor. A plate placed vertically in the bottom of a ship usually on every frame and running athwartship from bilge to bilge.

Floor Clips. Angle clips used to connect the longitudinals and brackets to the floor.

Floor, Continuous. A floor extending in one length from bilge to bilge and also applied to those extending in one length from centerline to bilge.

Floor, Deep. A term applied to any of the floors in the fore and after ends of vessels. Due to the converging sides of ships in the bow and stern, the floors become much deeper than in the main body.

Floor Head. A wooden ship term for the end of a floor timber.

Floor Head Chock. A piece shaped to form a scarph joint between the floor and futtock in a wooden ship.

Floor, Intercostal. A floor composed of a range of plates fitted between longitudinals and securely clipped to them.

Floor, Long and Short Arm. A wooden ship term applied were the floor arms are alternately long and short on both sides of the keel.

Floor, Main. The floor placed at the extreme beam.

Floor, Midship. The floor fitted at the midship section or at a point half-way between perpendiculars.

Floor Plates. See Floors, Also used to designate the plates used in the construction of floors.

Floor, Transom. The floor or vertical plate extending athwartship across the top of the stern post and attached thereto. On account of the overhanging nature of the stern this plate is made of extra thickness. Plates attached to the arch and propeller post of the stern frame are also called transoms.

Flooring, Fireproof. A flooring consisting of a fireproof compound laid on a deck.

Flooring, Metallic. This type of flooring consists of high metal plates either smooth, checkered, or having a ridged upper surface. They are principally used for working floors in the boiler and machinery spaces.

Flooring, Stokehold. A flooring of checkered plating or grating is usually fitted in the fire room a small distance above the inner bottom plating.

Flooring, Ventilating. See Gratings.

Flow Meter. An instrument for measuring the total flow of steam, water, oil, air or gas through pipes or closed conduits.

Flush Deck. See Deck, Flush.

Flush-deck Vessel. A vessel constructed with an upper deck extending throughout her entire length without a break or an erection, such as forecastle, poop, or similar structure.

Flush System. See Plating, Flush System.

Flushing Pump. See Pump, Sanitary.

Fly. The length of a flag; that portion of a flag farthest away from the supporting spar or halyard.

Flying Bridge. See Bridge, Flying.

Flying Jib Boom. See Jib Boom, Flying.

Flying Jib Boom Stay. A stay running from the forward end of the flying jib boom to the martingale.

Foaming, Boiler. See Boiler, Foaming.

Forced Draft, Boiler. See Boiler, Forced Draft.

Force Pump. See Pump, Force.

Fore. A term used in indicating portions or that part of a ship at or adjacent to the bow. Applied to that portion of the ship lying between the midship section and stem as fore body. Also to portions or parts of the ship lying between the midship section and stem as fore hold and foremast.

Fore Deadwood. See Deadwood, Fore.

Fore Deck. See Deck, Fore.

Fore Peak. The extreme forward end of the vessel below decks. The forward trimming tank.

Fore Peak Bulkhead. See Bulkhead, Fore Peak.

Fore and Aft. Parallel to the shipís centerline.

Fore-and-aft Ribbands. See Ribbands, Fore and aft.

Fore and Afters. A term applied to the portable beams running fore and aft in a hatch which support the covers and in turn are supported by athwartship cross beams. This term is also applied to sailing vessels having a schooner rig.

Forebody. That portion of the shipís body forward of the midship section.

Forecastle. A short structure at the onward end of a vessel formed by carrying up the shipís shell plating a deck height above the level of her uppermost complete deck and fitting a deck over the length of this structure. The after end of the forecastle may or may not be closed by a transverse bulkhead. The name given to the crewís quarters on a merchant ship when they are in the fore part of tube vessel.

Forecastle Deck. See Deck, Forecastle.

Forecastle Deck Stringer. See Stringer, Forecastle Deck.

Forecastle Deck Stringer Bar. See Stringer, Bar.

Forecastle Frame. See Frame, Forecastle.

Forecastle Gunwale. See Gunwale, Forecastle.

Forecastle Sheerstrake. The strake of outside plating adjacent to the forecastle deck.

Forefoot. A term designating the approximate intersection of the curved portion of the stem and the keel, That point in the forward end of the keel about which the boat pivots in an endwise launching.

Forelock. A wood or metal pin securing a shackle pin or bolt in place. Wood forelocks are usually coated with white lead before being driven home, while steel ones are tinned or galvanized. Fore locks are principally used in connecting shackles for chain cable.

Foreman, General, on Ship. A boss or overseer who has charge of all the workmen working either on the hull or installing the propelling and auxiliary machinery.

Forestay. A stay extending from the head of the fore mast, fore top mast, fore top-gallant mast, etc., to the deck, bowsprit, Jib-boom, or flying jib-boom. It prevents the foremast from falling backward under the tension of the shrouds, backstays, etc.

Forge. A basin or receptacle, holding burning fuel for heating small iron or steel bars and other metal parts. Forges are usually provided with a means of forced draft to intensify the heat. The term forge is used to designate the process of forging.

Forge, Rivet. See Furnace, Rivet.

Forging. A piece of metal, hammered, bent or pressed to shape while hot.

Forging Ahead. Moving forward at a rapid rate of speed.

Forging Machine. A machine for shaping metal by hammering or pressing it into dies while hot.

Forging Machine, Drop. A type of power hammer in which dies are fitted and the hot metal shaped by being forced into the dies with a succession of sharp, heavy blows from the hammer.

Forging Press. A type of power machine in which dies are fitted and the hot metal shaped by being forced into the dies by a steady pressure. Forging presses are generally of the hydraulic type.

Forging Press, Steam Hydraulic. See Forging Machine.

Forming. Rouging out, shaping timbers or structural shapes for fabrication.

Forward. In the direction of the stem.

Forward Part. The portion of the vessel in the vicinity of the stem, the bows.

Forward Perpendicular. A line perpendicular to the base line and intersecting the forward side of the stem at the designed waterline.

Forward Perpendicular, Area at. The area of the cross section at the forward perpendicular when the vessel has a projection below the designed waterline, such as a ram or bulbous section; the bulbous section being introduced to secure the advantage of increased length without increasing the waterline length. When a vessel is not fitted with an actual ram she may be given a vertical area at the forward perpendicular by snubbing the lines of the forefoot sharply into the stem from slightly abaft thereof.

Forward Quarter. Those portions of the vesselís sides immediately abaft the stem.

Foul. A term applied to the underwater portion of the outside of a vesselís shell when it is more or less covered with barnacles, grass or foreign mater. It has been found that even an oily film over a vesselís bottom will reduce the speed and that barnacles or grass will reduce a vesselís propulsive efficiency to a large extent.

Found. "All found" Ė complete as to fittings, outfit and equipment. "Well found" Ė all fittings, outfit and equipment of good quality and in good condition.

Foundations, Auxiliary. A term applied to seatings constructed of wood, steel or a combination of both for the purpose of providing foundations for condenser, distillers, evaporators, pumps or any of the auxiliary machinery in the engine or boiler room. These foundations may be built up from the tank top, bracketed to the bulkheads or hung from beams.

Founder. To sink as the result of the entrance of water.

Foundrymen. Workmen engaged in the manufacture of metal fittings or parts by casting. They are responsible for the preparation of molds, usually in sand, from the patterns furnished; for the proper mixing and melting of the metals required and far the pouring and cleaning of the castings.

Frame. A term generally used to designate one of transverse ribs that make up the skeleton of a ship. Where the structure is built up of a relatively small number of strong transverse webs or belt frames and a relatively large number of smaller fore and aft bars, the fore and aft bars are called the frames. The frames act as stiffeners, holding the outside plating in shape and maintaining the transverse form of the ship.

Frame, Angle Bar. A frame composed of an angle bar.

Frame Angle Bars. The angle bars which compose or are a part of a frame.

Frame Bender, Portable. A machine designed for bending steel shapes to required curvatures. It often consists of a hydraulic ram mounted on wheels for moving over the bending slabs and a pin arrangement for preventing motion while in use.

Frame Bracket. See Bracket, Frame.

Frame, Boss. A frame that is bent to fit around the boss in the way of a stern tube or shaft.

Frame, Bridge House. A frame supporting the outside planking or plating of a bridge house.

Frame, Built-up. Described under Frame.

Frame, Bulb Angle. A solid frame composed of a bulb angle.

Frame, Bulkhead. See Bulkhead Bounding Bar.

Frame, Bulwark. A frame projecting above the upper deck for the purpose of supporting the bulwark. See also Stanchion, Bulwark.

Frame, Butted. A term applied where the ends of the frames butt together as over the keel. In this case, which occurs with a bar or wood keel, a heel piece about 3 feet long with its flange reversed is required. The heel piece serves to make a continuous member out of a starboard and port frame and furnishes additional attachment to the shell plating.

Frame, Cant. A term applied to any of the frames in the overhanging portion of the stern of a ship. They abut on the transom frame to which they are connected by brackets and radiate out to form the skeleton of the overhanging stern. The spacing of these frames at the knuckle line should be about the same as the frame spacing amidships. Also a term applied to the frames in the bow and stern that are not set up at right angles to the keel

Frame, Channel Bar. A solid frame composed of a channel bar.

Frame, Deep. A web frame or a frame whose athwartship dimension is over the general amount.

Frame, Forecastle. A frame supporting the shell plating in the way of the forecastle.

Frame, Intermediate. A term applied to a frame in the double bottom, to which floor plates are not attached and where the floors are butted to alternate frames.

Frame, Lapped. Where a joint in a frame is made by lapping the ends. This is done by reversing the flange of one member.

Frame Liner, Straight. A strip of plate or bar steel, the width of the faying flange of the frame inserted between the frame and the outside strake of an in-an-out system of sell plating.

Frame Liner, Tapered. A strip of plate or bar steel the width of the faying flange of the frame and tapering from the thickness of the outside plating down to a line. This liner is inserted between the frame and the outside plating at every seam of a clinker system,

Frame Liners. See Liners, Frame.

Frame, Longitudinal. A term applied to any of the frames that run fore and aft.

Frame, Main. The frame installed at the point of extreme breadth.

Frame, Midship. The frame installed half way between perpendiculars or at the midship section.

Frame, Poop or Poop House. A frame supporting the shell plating in the way of the poop. A frame supporting the outside planking or plating of a poop house.

Frame, Reverse. A bar riveted to the upper edge of a floor plate or the web or inner flange of a frame. The fore and aft flanges of reverse bars when riveted to frames are toed in the opposite direction to the flange of the frame. One advantage of using frames and reverse frames over solid frames is that the reversed frame may be stopped at or a little above the bilge where the design will permit. A common design is to run all reverse frames in the bow and stern to the upper, forecastle or poop deck as the case may be and to run the alternate reverse frames to the upper deck in the main body.

Frame, Rudder. See Rudder Frame.

Frame, Side. A term applied to a frame extending from the bilge to the upper deck.

Frame, Solid. Described under frame.

Frame Spacing. The distance between heel and heel of consecutive frames.

Frame Squad. A crew of workmen who assemble and erect the frames of a ship.

Frame, Stern. See Stern Frame.

Frame, Transom. A term applied to the frame or the frame and floor plate extending athwartship across the stern post and fastened thereto. This frame acts as a foundation or support for the structure of the overhanging stern in a vessel. Frames attached to the arch and propeller post of a stern frame are also called transoms.

Frame, Transverse. A term applied to a frame that runs athwartship.

Frame, Tunnel. A term applied to one of the frames supporting the plating of shaft and access tunnels. When the tunnel has a rounded top the frame may be made in one piece bent round at the top. The spacing of the frames should coincide with the main transverse frames of the ship.

Frame, Web. A built up member consisting of a web plate to the edges of which single or double bars are riveted. They are placed several frame spaces apart with smaller frames in between. They extend from the tank top to the deck and between decks where extra strength is required. Where a web frame system is installed the intermediate frames may be smaller than for the ordinary framed ship. The web frame on account of its great depth is very stiff and it backs up the intermediate frames through intercostal girders running fore-and-aft between web frames.

Frame, Web, Angle Bars. Angle bars riveted to the inner edge of the web plate of a web frame.

Frame, Web, Angle Clips. Clips used for attaching the web frames to tank top, decks, stringers, etc.

Frame, Wing. A term applied to one of side frames in a ship.

Frame, Z Bar. A solid frame composed of a Z bar.

Framing, Paddle Box. The framing upon which the semi-circular compartments for housing the paddle wheels is connected.

Framing, Plan. A diagrammatic plan showing the distribution and type of construction of the members making up the vesselís framing

Freeboard. The distance from the waterline to the top of the weather deck at side. Sometimes used with reference to the entire out of water portion of a vesselís side.

Freeboard Deck. See Deck, Freeboard.

Freeing Port. See Port, Bulwark, Clearing or Freeing.

Freighter. A vessel designed for the safe and economical transportation of merchandise from port to port.

Frequency of an Electric Circuit. The number of cycles the electromotive force, or current, passes through in one second. When an alternating electromotive force, or current, has passed through a complete set of positive and negative values, starting from any value and again returning to that value, in the same direction, it has completed what is called a cycle.

Fresh Water Pump. See Pump, Fresh Water.

Friction Drum. A drum used to control the speed of the windlass shaft when paying out. Direction drums are used on winches to throw the power on or off the hoisting drum shaft.

Friction Saw. A rapidly revolving soft steel disc, the edge of which is slightly nicked by a special chisel.

Frictional Resistance. See Resistance, Frictional.

Fuel, Boiler. See Boiler, Fuel.

Fuel Oil Burning System. The fuel oil burning system includes everything necessary to an oil burning installation including the fuel oil tanks, oil pump, air compressor heater, piping, hurlers, etc.

Fuel Oil Heater. An auxiliary used in connection with an oil burning installation to heat the fuel oil and make it volatile. It usually consists of a chamber in which a steam coil is lifted. The oil is admitted to the chamber and heated by live steam passing through the coil after which it is carried by a pipe line to the burners.

Fuel Oil Heater Foundation. A term applied to the seating supporting the fuel oil heater.

Fuel Oil Service Pump. See Pump, Fuel Oil Service.

Full Ended. When the extremities of the waterlines in the vicinity of the load line are strongly convex to the surrounding water and the ends of the sectional area curve are full indicating that the displacement is carried well forward and aft towards the ends of the vessel.

Fuller. A tool used in hand forging to smooth rough surfaces or to make offsets.

Funnel, Boiler. See Smoke Stack.

Furnace. A built up chamber in which fuel is burned to produce intense heat. Furnaces are used to heat plates, shapes, etc. to permit their being hammered or bent to a shipís form. A space or receptacle built in a boiler in which the combustion of fuel takes place.

Furnace, Angle. See Furnace Bar.

Furnace, Bar. A furnace used for heating shapes forming the frames, etc., in order to shape and bevel them too the required form. These furnaces are generally of small width and great length.

Furnace, Corrugated. A cylindrical type of furnace used un fire tube boilers, the shell of which is corrugated to resist external pressure.

Furnace Door, Boiler. See Boiler Door, Furnace.

Furnace, Electric. A furnace in which the heat is furnished by an electric arc, or by the current going throng the furnace charge or a special resistor, as in the resistance furnace, or by the current flowing through the secondary of a special transformer as in the induction furnace.

Furnace Front. See Boiler Furnace Front.

Furnace, Hardening or Tempering. A furnace using solid fuel such as coal, coke, etc., and containing a cast iron or clay plate or receptacle in which the pieces to be hardened or tempered may be heated. The heat is reflected from the grate to the plate by an arch. Steel is also hardened by use of a liquid bath, consisting of lead, mercury, common salt and other compositions in a furnace similar to a Tempering Pot Furnace.

Furnace Men. Workmen who heat and bend plates and shapes to the required forms. They also bend and bevel frame bars and fashion boss plates.

Furnace, Oil. A furnace in which oil fuel is used for producing the required heat.

Furnace, Plate. A furnace used for heating plates which require working into special forms, such as boss plates These furnaces generally are wide and only about half as long as an angle furnace.

Furnace, Rivet. A small basin or receptacle, holding burning fuel for heating rivets.

Furnace, Tempering Pot. A furnace containing a receptacle which holds a bath for drawing temper in steel. A commonly used bath consists of lead and tin in varying proportions, boiling linseed oil or lead heated to the melting point by coal, oil, gas or other fuel. The composition of the bath depends upon the temper required.

Furnaced Plate. See Plate, Furnaced.

Furniture. The furniture aboard a ship may be divided into two groups, built-in and portable. Built-in furniture consists of berths, seats, lockers, side boards, etc., that are an integral part of the joiner work of the ship. Portable furniture consists of arm chests, bedsteads, benches, boxes, bureaus, chests, chiffoniers, desks, file boxes, lockers, sofas, swinging berths, tables, toilet racks, wash basin stands, wardrobes, etc. Benches include seats for the crew and steerage passengers, work benches for carpenter, engineer or mechanics. Boxes include ice boxes, and lockers include provision lockers, chronometer lockers, etc.

Furrings. Strips of wood secured to the frames or studding for the purpose of securing an even surface to attach sheathing or ceiling.

Fuse. A short piece of metal, in the form of a wire, rod or strip, forming part of an electric circuit to protect electrical apparatus or electric wiring from excessive current. For a given circuit, a fuse is used of such metal and conductivity that it will melt and thus open the circuit as soon as the limit of current carrying capacity of the circuit is reached. Fuses are generally placed in boxes, tubes or other receptacles, to prevent the vaporized metal flying out on surrounding objects.

Fuse Box. A fireproof receptacle, enclosing a fuse or fuses, with suitable contacts or clips for readily attaching them.

Fusible Plug. A plug of soft metal fitted near the dangerous low water level in water tube boilers, its purpose being to melt out when the water level drops to low and allow the escaping steam to extinguish the fires. Fusible plugs generally consist of a bronze casing with a hole filled with pure tin. In externally heated cylindrical boilers with flues, fusible plugs are located in the top of the upper flue and in the shell of the boiler immediately below the fire line. Scotch boilers and boilers having a combustion chamber are provided with plugs located in the crown sheet of the combustion chamber.

Futtock Double. A piece of timber forming two futtocks in one length.

Futtocks. The pieces of timber of which a frame in a wood ship is composed. Starting at the keel they are called the first futtocks, 2nd futtocks, 3rd futtocks, and so on.


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