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Kayak. A term applied to a canoe made out of seal skin. These crafts are used by the Eskimos.

Keel. A center line strength member running fore and aft along the bottom of a ship and often referred to as the back bone. In wood ships, it is composed of as long pieces of timber as can be obtained, which are scarped together at their ends. In steel vessels it is composed either of long bars scarped at their ends or by flat plates connected together by butt straps.

Keel, Bar. A keel projecting below the bottom of a vessel consisting of an iron or steel bar. The garboard strakes of shell plating are flanged down and riveted to it. These bars are obtained in as long lengths as possible and their joints are scarped. The proper size may be obtained from the rules of the Classification Societies.

Keel, Bilge. A fin fitted on the bottom of a ship at the turn of the bilge to reduce rolling. It commonly consists of a plate running fore and aft and attached to the shell plating by angle bars. It materially helps in steadying a ship and does not add much to the resistance to propulsion.

Keel Blocks. See Blocks, Keel.

Keel Condenser. See Condenser, Keel.

Keel, Docking. In dry docking, the weight of a ship is carried almost entirely on the keel and bilge blocks. The keel and keelson provide the means of distributing the pressure on the centerline and docking keels composed of doubling strips of plate or built up girders are sometimes fitted on the bottom at a distance from the centerline corresponding to the best position for the bilge blocks. The docking keels are fitted in a fore and aft direction, generally parallel or nearly so to the keel. In vessels having a flat bottom doubling strips of plate are used, but where there is a dead rise this keel is composed of plates and shapes built down so that its bottom is on the same level as the bottom of the keel. The number and lengths of these keels varies with the shape and size of tile vessel.

Keel, False. An additional piece bolted on to the main keel and serving the purpose of a renewable rubbing strip or fender.

Keel, Flat Plate. A plate of extra thickness riveted to the bottom angles of the keelson. The flat plate keel has been substituted for the bar keel in most steel ships because it saves draft and is sufficient for docking purposes. Grounding on a rocky or uneven bottom is a rare occurrence, and when this does happen a bar keel is usually not strong enough to prevent disaster. Where extra strength is required the flat plate keel consists of two plates riveted together and having their butts staggered.

Keel, Hollow. A hollow box-shaped keel made up of plates and shapes.

Keel, Inner. The inner plate of a double flat plate keel.

Keel, Lower. A piece of timber placed between the main and false keels on wood ships.

Keel, Outer. The outer plate of a double flat plate keel.

Keel Piece. That portion of the stern frame forward of the propeller post in single screw vessels and forward of the stern post in sailing and twin screw vessels. Its function is to make a rigid connection with the keel.

Keel-Plate. A plate used to connect the wood keel to the steel framing in a composite ship. Also applied to any single plate composing the keel.

Keel Rabbet. A groove on each side of the keel into which the edges of planking or plating are fitted.

Keel Rivet. See Rivet, Keel.

Keel Rope. A rope used to clear the limber holes and inaccessible spaces in the bottom of a ship of waste matter.

Keel, Safety. A term applied where extra plates of thick plating are fitted over the garboard strake adjacent to the keel.

Keel, Side Bar. Either a bar on each side of which vertical plates are riveted or several vertical plates riveted together, the combines thickness equaling the required bar keel. The garboard strakes are flanged down and riveted to it.

Keelson. A term applied to the fore and aft girders in the bottom of a steel ship whether on the centerlines, to one side or at the bilge. In wood ships keelson consists of a strong timber running along the top of the transverse frames parallel to and directly above the keel.

Keelson Angle Bar. This term applies to the continuous fore and aft bars at the top and bottom of the keelson. The angles connecting floor plates and brackets to the keelson are generally called clips.

Keelson, Bilge. A fore and aft girder placed at the lower turn of the bilge.

Keelson, Box. A keelson made up like a box girder with two vertical plates.

Keelson Bracket. A bracket usually a triangular-shaped plate connecting the keelson and shell plating between frames.

Keelson Casing. A wood ship term applied to the wood box fitted around the keelson to provide a means for keeping it salted.

Keelson, Intercostal. A keelson made up of a range of plates fitted intercostally between floors and attached to the floors, shell and tank top by angle bars or shapes.

Keelson, Rider. A piece of timber placed on top of the main keelson in wood ships. A term applied to the keelson when it runs along the top of the floors in steel ships.

Keelson, Side. A term applied to the fore and aft girders running along the bottom of the ship parallel, or nearly so, to the keel.

Keelsons, Sister. Pieces of timber placed alongside of the main keelson in wood ships.

Keelson, Vertical Center. The lower middle line girder, which in conjunction with a flat plate keel on the bottom and a rider plate on top, forms the principal fore and aft strength member in the bottom of a ship. In addition to its importance as a "back bone" or longitudinal strength member, it serves to distribute and equalize the pressure on the transverse frames and bottom of the ship when grounding or docking occurs. In steel ships this keelson usually consists of a vertical plate with two angles running along the top and two along the bottom. The girder, however, may be made up of various combinations of plates and shapes. This member should continue as far forward and aft as possible.

Keeper, Davit. See Davit, Keeper.

Keeper, Rudder. See Rudder, Keeper.

Kentledge. Pig iron used either as temporary weight for inclining a vessel or as permanent ballast.

Kerf. A term applied in joiner work to a slit or cut made by a saw. Kerfs are made at the junction of timbers where the joints require adjusting. Also applied to the channel burned out by a cutting torch.

Keying Rings. Lead washers used to secure shackle pin forelocks. The forelock has a recess near the end into which the ring is upset by a special tool. In unshackling the keying ring is sheared off when the forelock is backed out.

Keyseater. A machine designed especially for cutting keyseats in shafts, the hubs of pulleys, gears, etc.

Keyway Cutter. See Keyseater.

Kid. A small wood tub, as a mess lid, spit kid, etc.

Kilowatt. The practical unit of electrical power. It is 1,000 times greater than the watt.

Kingston Valve. See Valve, Kingston.

King Post; Sampson Post. A strong vertical post used to support a derrick boom.

Kink. An abrupt bend or short curl or loop in a rope or cable frequently occasioned by excessive lay or twist.

Knee. A block of wood having a natural angular shape or a block cut to a bracket shape and used for the purpose of fastening and strengthening corners of deck openings, intersections of timbers, and supporting deck beams.

Knees, Beam. See Beam Knees.

Knight-Head. The forward vertical timbers adjacent to the stem post.

Knot. A unit of speed equaling one nautical mile per hour; a division of the log line which serve to measure a vesselís rate of speed; a term applied to a connection made with a piece of cordage to another piece or to another object.

Knot, Granny. A knot in which the first crossing is reversed from that in a square knot. This knot is insecure, difficult to open when jammed, and is held in contempt by seamen.

Knot, Mathew Walker. A single and a double knot namely from the originator. It is made by hitching each of the three strands, in the direction of the lay in such a manner, that the rope can be laid up and continued beyond the knot. The knot is in the form of a transverse collar around the rope and is used on the end of dead eye lanyards.

Knot, Square. A knot in which the ends protrude on the same side of the loop with the standing parts. Sometimes called a "flat knot" and also known as a "reef knot" from its employment in tying reef points. This knot has the advantage of not slipping and is easily untied; however, it does not answer well for uniting ropes of very different sizes since the parts would slip unless stopped down.

Knuckle. An abrupt change in direction of the plating, frames, keel, deck or other structure of a vessel. The term is most frequently used with reference to the line at the apex of the angle dividing the upper from the lower part of the stern or counter of elliptical or round stern vessels.


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