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Label Plates, Name Plates. Small plates usually made of brass and embossed or engraved with the name, number, etc., of rooms, compartment, frames, valves and equipment on a vessel, and attached to or located near the article to which it refers.
Lace Piece. A piece of timber joining the bobstay piece and cutwater.
Lacing. A cord or rope used to lash the head of a sail to a gaff, the leech of a staysail to a stay, or a bonnet to a sail; to secure sections of awnings or sails to each other and to replace reef points in a gaff sail. Eyelet holes or grommets are placed near the edge of the awning or sail through which the lacing is rove.
Ladder. A framework consisting of two parallel sides connected by bars or steps which are spaced at intervals suitable for ascending or descending. On shipboard the term ladder is also applied to staircases and to other contrivances used in ascending or descending to or from a higher or lower level.
Ladder, Accommodation. A term applied to a staircase suspended over the side of a vessel from a gangway to a point near the water, to provide an easy means of access from a small boat to the deck of a vessel.
Ladder, Bridge. A ladder providing access to a bridge
Ladder, Companion. A staircase fitted as access from a deck to the quarters.
Ladder, Jacobís. See Jacobís Ladder.
Ladder, Mast. A ladder attached to a mast to provide means for going aloft.
Ladder, Pillar. A term applied to a ladder formed by fitting rungs extending out from a pillar or stanchion. They are commonly used as a means of securing access to cargo holds.
Ladder, Poop. A term applied to a ladder leading from the Upper Deck to the Poop Deck.
Ladder, Sea. A term applied to rungs riveted to the side of a vessel to form a ladder from the weather deck to the water.
Lag Screw. See Screw.
Lagging. A term applied to the insulating material that is fitted on the outside of boilers, piping, etc.
Lamp, Arc. An electric lamp in which the light is produced by an electric arc drawn between two electrodes. The arc lamp is arranged to separate the electrodes automatically when the current begins to flow and to feed them toward each other as they burn away at the tip.
Lamp Black. See Paint.
Lamp, Incandescent. An electric lamp in which the light is produced by the electric current heating to incandescence a filament which is enclosed in a glass chamber from which the air has been exhausted as completely as is practicable or which is filled with some inert gas such as nitrogen.
Lamp, Pilot. A lamp mounted our or near a switchboard for giving the operator a signal when a circuit breaker opens, a fuse blows, the voltage in a circuit becomes zero, or that conditions in some circuit have changed.
Lamp, Smoking. A small lamp kept lighted during smoking hours on board naval vessels to furnish lights for the smokers.
Land Boards. A term applied to planks near the hatches for purpose of receiving the cargo and protecting the deck.
Lanyard. A length of rope or cord used in numerous dissimilar ways, i. e., as a fall rove through the dead eyes in setting up the shrouds or other standing rigging; as a knife-lanyard to prevent a knife falling from aloft. In this case it consists of a small cord attached to the ring in the end of the knife, the other end being worn around the neck; a port lanyard is a light line used to haul a port into the closed position or to support it when open. The term is also applied to the rope handle of a bucket. The present tendency seems to limit the application of the term to any line having a loose end the other being attached to any object for the purpose of either near or remote control.
Lanyards. A short piece of rope rove through dead eyes, connecting shrouds to side of vessel.
Lap. A term applied to the distance that one piece is laid over another in making a lap joint.
Lap. The distance which the valve edge on the steam side extends over the port, the piston being at mid- position.
Lapped Frame. See Frame, Lapped.
Lapped Joint. See Joint, Lapped.
Lapstreak. A term applied to boats built on the clinker system in which the strakes overlap each other. The top strake always laps on the outside of the strake beneath.
Lateral Resistance. See Resistance, Lateral.
Lathe. A machine used for producing various machine and tool parts and which is adapted to a great many operations, such as turning circular work, boring holes, cutting screw threads and for many other classes of work, the extent and variety of which depend upon the type of lathe and its auxiliary equipment.
Lathe, Double Spindle. A type of lathe having two working spindles arranged so that one gives a larger swing. than the other.
Lathe, Engine. The most common type of lathe. The term "engine" as used in this connection, simply means a machine, and it serves to designate that particular class of lathe which is used by machinists for general work, and which may be considered as the standard type. In ordinary shop usage the word "lathe" is commonly used to indicate a lathe of this class.
Lathe, Gap. A lathe designed with a gap or space in front of the head stock to allow a larger swing for face-plate work.
Lathe, Speed. A simple lathe having no carriage or attachments operated by mechanical means.
Lathe, Turret. A lathe equipped with a turret which is mounted upon a carriage and contains the tools which are successively brought into the working position by indexing or rotating the turret
Launch. A term applied to a small power or motor boat.
Launching. A term applied to the operation of sliding a vessel into the water. There are two methods by which this operation may be accomplished, one of which is called end launching and the other side launching.
Launching Grease. A lubricant applied to the sliding and ground ways in launching a vessel. In addition to the grease so designated, tallow, steerine, etc., are also used either mixed in various proportions or else applied unmixed in layers to the ways.
Launching Tallow. Tallow used as a lubricant for the sliding and ground ways when launching a vessel.
Law of Comparison. Otherwise known as Froudeís Law. For similar ships running at speeds less in the ratio of the square roots of their linear dimensions, the resistances are in the ratio of the cubes of the linear dimensions. The speeds as above noted are called corresponding speeds.
Lay (of a Rope). A term used to designate both the amount of twist put into a rope and its direction. The amount of twist is usually expressed as sail makers lay, bolt rope, soft-laid, regular lay, hard-laid, or other special lays as required for a particular use. In general, the softer the lay the greater the strength, but the less the resistance to wear. Wearing quality is sacrificed to facility in handling in soft-laid rope and strength to utility in hard-laid rope. The direction of twist is designated as right-hand and left-hand, or as right-laid and left-laid.
Lay, Rope. See Rope, Lay.
Layers Out. Workmen who indicate on the material the operations necessary to fabricate it.
Laying Off. Work performed by shipfitters nearly identical with "laying out."
Laying Out. Placing the necessary instructions on plates and shapes for shearing planing, punching, bending, hanging, beveling, rolling, etc., from templates made in the mold loft or taken from the ship.
Lazaret. The space above the after peak between decks, used as a store-room for provisions in some merchant vessels.
Lazy Guy. A name given to a light rope or tackle by which a boom is prevented from swinging around.
Lead. A term sometimes used synonymously with the term "trim."
Lead. An apparatus used for determining the depth of water under a vessel. It is generally made of lead of nearly prismatic shape tapering slightly to the upper end through which is made a hole for bending a strap to which a marked line is attached.
Lead. Described under Metals.
Lead. The width of the admission steam or exhaust port opening at the beginning of the stroke.
Lead Line. A fine line marked in fathoms or feet to which the lead is attached and from which the depth of water is read off.
Leading Edge. Referring to a propeller blade, the edge which cuts the water when the screw is revolving in the ahead direction. Referring to rudders or strut arms, the edges toward the stem.
Leak. Any orifice or other opening in a vesselís structure which permits water or other fluid to enter or to escape. The egress or ingress of water or other fluid from or into a container or compartment.
Ledge. A strip along the front of a shelf or table to prevent articles from rolling off.
Ledge Bars. See Hatch Rest.
Leech. A term applied to the side edges of a square sail or to the fore and aft edges of a fore and aft sail.
Lee Side. The opposite side to that which is exposed to the wind; the opposite of windward side.
Leeway. The amount of a vesselís deviation from her steered course due to action of wind and tide.
Left-Laid Rope. See Rope, Left-Laid.
Left Rudder. A term recently adopted in the Navy which is applied to the operation of moving the rudder to port and consequently turning the bow of the ship to the left.
Length by Lloydís Rules. The length from the fore part of the stem to the after part of the stern post on the range of the upper deck beams, except in awning or shelter deck vessels, in which cases the length is to be measured on the range of the deck beams next below the awning or shelter deck.
Length on Waterline. The length from the fore side of the stem to the after side of the sternpost or stern counter measured at the designed waterline.
Length Over All. The total Length over all, i. e., the length measured from the foremost to the aftermost points of a vesselís hull.
Length, Register. The length from the fore part of the outer plating or planking on the side of the stem to the after part of the main sternpost of screw steamers, i. e., the one to which the rudder is attached, and to the after part of the rudderpost of all other vessels measured on top of the tonnage deck. The register length of scows and barges with a square bow and stern sloping up from the bottom to the deck and with neither stem, sternpost or rudder-post is to be taken on the deck from the extreme point of the hull at the bow to the extreme point of the hull at the stern, i. e., the overall length of the hull is to be considered the register length of such vessels.
Lengthening (of a Ship). The act of increasing a vesselís length by inserting a section amidships. The vessel is placed in a dry dock or on a marine railway, the longitudinal members are cut through in a staggered direction at about amidships, the two resulting parts separated the desired distance, and the intervening space fitted up with frames, stringers, plating, etc., so as to unite the forward and after portions in a new and longer hull.
Letterers. Painters who label compartments, tanks, etc.
Levee. An embankment constructed along a river to prevent overflow.
Lever, Beveling. A lever with a jaw at one end used to bend the flanges of angles or channels to a given inclination with the other flange or web. This tool is most commonly used at bending slabs.
Life Buoy, Ring. A ring made of solid cork or equivalent buoyant material having an outside diameter of not less than thirty inches and an inside diameter of not less than seventeen inches. The number of buoys a vessel should carry depends on her length. They should not be permanently fastened to a vessel, but should be so placed as to be readily accessible in case of emergency. One of the buoys on each side of the vessel should have a life line attached of at least fifteen fathoms in length. Life ring buoys are also placed on wharves and along water fronts, and as on a ship they are thrown to persons in the water for the purpose of sustaining them until they can be reached.
Life Preserver, Life Jacket. A wide belt of good cork blocks, or other suitable buoyant material, made to wrap around the body under the armpits, and having shoulder straps so fitted that the device may be put on like a vest. The object of a life preserver is to keep a person from sinking in case a vessel has to be abandoned.
Life Raft. A frame work enclosing two or more air cylinders, to provide sufficient buoyancy to support the number of people it is designed to carry.
Lifeboat. A small boat carried on davits or on one of the upper decks of a vessel where it can be easily lowered into the water in case of an emergency.
Lifeboat Falls Controller. A type of winch installed aboard ships for controlling the falls when lowering or hoisting lifeboats.
Lifeboat, Metallic. A lifeboat having its shell constructed of light metal plates. The keel, stem, stern-post and gunwales should be of oak or other suitable wood.
Lifeboat, Motor. A lifeboat with an internal combustion type of engine substantially and permanently installed inside the boat.
Lifting Gear, Engine. Gear designed for the purpose of lifting cylinder covers, crank shafts, and other heavy engine weights. It consists of tackles, screws, etc.
Lifting Gear, Turbine. See Turbine Lifting Gear.
Lifts. Ropes supporting the yards at the yard arms being led through blocks or fairleaders at the mast head and thence to the deck or the top.
Light, Anchor. A vessel under one hundred and fifty feet in length when at anchor shall carry forward, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a white light, in a lantern so constructed as to show a clear, uniform and unbroken light visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least one mile. A vessel of one hundred and fifty feet or upwards in length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forward part of the vessel, at a height or not less than twenty and not exceeding forty feet above the hull, one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall be not less than fifteen feet lower than the forward light, another such light. The length of a vessel shall be deemed to be the length appearing in her certificate of registry. A vessel aground in or near a fair-way shall carry the above light or lights, and in addition it shall carry at the same height as the mast head light, where they can best be seen, and if a steam vessel in lieu of that light, two red lights, in a vertical line one over the other, not less than six feet apart, and of such a character as to be visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least two miles.
Light, Blue. A light used for signaling purposes and which is obtained by igniting a mixture.
Light Cruiser. A naval vessel of moderate displacement carrying a battery of guns of medium size, light protection and having high speed. These vessels are intended for scouting, blockade, and convoy work.
Light, Flare-Up. Every vessel may, if necessary in order to attract attention, in addition to her regular lights, show a flare-up light as a distress signal. Pilot vessels when engaged on their station on pilotage duty shall not show the lights required for other vessels, but shall carry a white light at the mast head, visible all around the horizon, and shall also exhibit a flare-up light or lights at short intervals, which shall never exceed fifteen minutes. Sailing vessels engaged in trawling shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, show where it can best be seen a white flare-up light or torch in sufficient time to prevent collision. Fishing vessels and boats may at any time use a flare-up light, as well as the regular lights, and they may also use working lights. A vessel which is being overtaken by another shall show from her stern to such last mentioned vessel a white light or flare-up light.
Light, Flood. See Flood Light.
Light, Masthead. Masthead lights on seagoing vessels should be installed as follows: A light on or in front of the foremast of steam vessels, or if a vessel without a foremast, then in the fore part of the vessel, at a height above the hull of not less than twenty feet, and if the breadth of the vessel exceeds twenty feet, then at a height above the hull of not less than such a breadth, so, however, that the light need not be carried at a height greater than forty feet above the hull, a bright white light, so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the vessel, namely; from directly ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least five miles.
Lights, Range. A seagoing steam vessel when under way may carry an additional white light similar in construction to the masthead light. These two lights shall be placed in line with the keel that one shall be at least fifteen feet higher than the other, and in such a position with reference to each other that the lower light shall be forward of the upper one. The vertical distance between these lights shall be less than the horizontal distance.
Lights, Side. Side lights on seagoing vessels should be installed as follows: On the starboard side a green light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from directly ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least two miles. On the port side a red light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from directly ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least two miles. The said green and red lights shall be fitted with inboard screens projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent these lights from being seen across the bow.
Lights, Stern. A seagoing steam vessel which is being overtaken by another shall show from her stern to such last mentioned vessel a white light of a flare-up light. Said light must be carried as near as practicable on the same level as the side lights.
Lights, Visible. A term applied to lights that can be seen on a dark night in a clear atmosphere.
Light Waterline. The line to which a vessel submerges when she is light, i.e., without cargo, or ballast in the case of merchant vessels, and without complement, stores, fuel, ammunition, feed water, etc., in the case of war vessels.
Light and Air Space. Space required for the admission of light and air to the engine room, machinery or other similar spaces so situated as to render the direct admission of light by other means difficult or impossible.
Lightening. The act of discharging cargo in order to lessen the draft.
Lightening Hole. A hole cut out of any structural member, as in the web, where very little loss of strength will occur. These holes reduce the weight and in many cases serve as access holes. This condition is particularly true in floor plates and longitudinals in a double bottom.
Lighter. A full bodied, heavily built craft, usually not self-propelled, used in bringing merchandise or cargo alongside or in transferring same from a vessel.
Lightning Switch. See Switch, Lighting.
Lignum Vitae. A wood of very hard and oily nature. It is used in strips or blocks as a bearing surface for the propeller shaft in stern tubes.
Limber-Boards. Removable boards serving as covers for water-courses.
Limber Chain. A chain used to work back and forth through the limber holes to keep the same from becoming choked up.
Limber Hole. A hole or slot in a frame or plate for the purpose of preventing water from collecting. Most frequently found in floor plates just above the frames and near the center line of the ship.
Limber Strake. See Strake, Limber.
Linchpin. A metal pin passing through a shaft or axle to hold in position a pulley, wheel, etc. Linchpin and forelock are terms used synonymously by many, though a forelock is the more narrow application of the term.
Line. A general term for a rope of any size used for various purposes; small cords such as log line, lead line and small stuff as marline, ratline, houseline, etc.
Line Throwing Gun. A small gun used for shooting lines from wrecked vessels to the shore or another vessel or vice-versa.
Liner. A piece of metal used for the purpose of filling up a space between a bar and a plate, between two plates.
Liner, Atlantic. A merchant vessel engaged in regular Transatlantic service, usually having high speed, comfortable passenger accommodations, moderate freight capacity, and large size, The term probably originated with the first efforts to place in service ships which should maintain a regular schedule across the Atlantic Ocean.
Liner, Bulkhead. A short or diamond shaped plate fitted between the outer flanges if bulkhead bounding bars and the outer strakes of shell plating. On account of watertightness the rivet spacing in bounding bars is closer than in the frames and the bulkhead liner is a compensating plate to make up this deficiency.
Liners, Frame. Small strips of plate, of the same width as the frame flange, inserted between the frame and a shell plate to give contact between the two, where owing to the method of fitting the plate it would not otherwise bear against the frame.
Liner, Frame, Straight. See Frame Liner, Straight.
Liner, Frame, Tapered. See Fame Liner, Tapered.
Liners, Tapered. A term applied to pieces of plate that are hammered into a wedge shape and used as filler pieces between plating and framing in the way of lap joints.
Lines, Bevel. A representation by means of lines of the inclinations which one set of surfaces make with others or with a datum line.
Lines (on a Drawing). Among the principal lines on a drawing are the following: Base Line: A horizontal fore and aft reference line for vertical measurements. This line is perpendicular to the vertical center line. A horizontal transverse reference line for vertical measurements. This line is perpendicular to both the vertical center line and the fore and aft base line. Buttock Lines: Vertical lines parallel to the vertical center line on the body plan; horizontal lines parallel to the fore and aft center line on the half breadth plan; and curved lines on the sheer plan. Center Line: A horizontal fore an aft reference line for athwartship measurements dividing the ship into two symmetrical halves. This line lies in the vertical plane passing through the base line. A vertical reference line being the center of the body plan, midship section or other section. This line is perpendicular to the base line. The projection of a vertical fore and aft plane embracing this line appears on the half breadth plan as a fore and aft line dividing the vessel into halves. Diagonals: Diagonal lines extending from the vertical center line to the frame lines on the body plan and curved lines on the half breadth and sheer plans. Frame Lines: Curved lines showing the contour of the frames on body plan; straight vertical lines on the half breadth plan; and straight vertical lines on the sheer plan. Water Lines: Horizontal lines parallel to the horizontal transverse base line on the body plan; curved lines on the half breadth plan; and horizontal lines parallel to the horizontal fore and aft base line on the sheer plan.
Lines (on a ship). Usually chalk lines whose position may be permanently fixed by center punching; also wires or cords for temporary use.
Lines (Plan). A drawing showing a vesselís form, projected on three planes perpendicular to each other. Conceiving the surface of the vessel cut by planes parallel to each of these three reference planes, the intersections of these with the vesselís form will be curved lines which may be projected on the three reference planes. The projection of any particular intersection will appear as straight lines on two of the reference planes and as a curved line on the third.
Linesman. A mold loftsman who is a expert on laying down shipís lines and developing work therefrom.
Lining Up. The process of adjusting the various moving parts of an engine so as to insure their functioning in exactly the desired manner both from the standpoint of individual action and from that of the engine as a whole.
Link. A machine member designed to receive and transmit power from one part of an engine to another.
Link Brasses. Brasses fitted in the bearings at the ends of a link.
Link Motion. Synonymous with a portion of the reversing mechanism or gear and referring to that part of the apparatus which is composed of eccentrics, eccentric rods, links, and slide valve rod.
Link, Stephenson. See Stephenson Link.
Linoleum Cement. See Paint.
Linseed Oil. See Paint.
List. The deviation of a vessel from the upright position, due to bilging, shifting of cargo, or other cause.
Live Load. A load suddenly applied, a moving load. Examples of live load are wind pressure, a weight being lifted by a crane, a train moving over a bridge.
Lizard. A rope having a thimble, bullís eye, or block spliced into the end. It is used as a leader.
Load Line. The line on the "lines plan" of a ship representing the intersection of the shipís form with the plane of the waterís surface when the vessel is floating with her designed load on board. Also applied to the actual intersection of the surface of the water with a vesselís side.
Load Water plane. The water plane at which the vessel floats when in fully loaded condition.
Local. Bolts. Bolts or studs used to hold in place a ring, band, bearing, etc.
Lock Chamber. The space or compartment contained between the gates at each end of a lock.
Locker. An encloses space or small closet used for stowing articles.
Loftsmen. Workmen who lay down the shipís lines full size on the mold loft floor and make templates or molds for the various parts or details of the vesselís structure.
Log. An apparatus either for ascertaining the momentary speed of a vessel in knots or the distance she has traveled in a given time.
Log Line. The line connecting a log-chip or harpoon log to the vessel or between the rotator and the registering mechanism of a taffrail log.
Loggerheads. Heavy iron bars, heated and then used to melt pitch for caulking a ship. They were favorite weapons in private fights, hence the term "to be at loggerheads".
Loll. The action of a ship having small metacentric height, by virtue of which she heels sufficiently to bring her vertical center of gravity over the center of buoyancy. This term is really descriptive of the action of many crank ships.
Long Splice. A splice made without an increase in the ropeís diameter. It is required in a rope that must reeve through a block. The strands are first unlade for a considerable distance, the end of the ropes then brought together, the strands interlaced, the ends of each subdivided and a part of them tucked over and under the full strands, and the remaining unused partial strands trimmed off.
Longboat, Launch. A large pulling boat of full lines and square stern intended for general utility.
Longitudinal. A general term meaning fore and aft, as longitudinal bulkhead, longitudinal strength, etc. A fore and aft girder in the bottom of a ship or a side keelson.
Longitudinal Bulkhead. See Bulkhead, Longitudinal.
Longitudinal Coefficient. See Coefficient, Longitudinal.
Longitudinal Framed Ship. See Ship, Longitudinal Framed.
Longitudinal Frames. See Frames, longitudinal.
Longitudinal Girder. A term applied to the fore and aft girders in the bottom of a ship. These girders are usually made up from plates and shapes and are sometimes intercostal and sometimes continuous. Where the plates are cut at the floors, either or both, the top and bottom bars may be made continuous by notching out the floor plates in their way and cutting the floor bars.
Longitudinal Number or Numeral. A key number used by Classification Societies in their rules for determining the scantlings of the fore and aft members and the plating. These numbers with the corresponding scantlings are tabulated in the rules and are the results of experience and comparison. The numbers are arrived at in different ways by the various Classification Societies but they are always identification numbers indicating the general size of the vessel as well as the proper scantlings of the structural members.
Longitudinal Stresses. Stresses which act lengthwise of a girder or beam. Similarly for a ship, stresses acting parallel to the center line.
Longitudinal Subdivision. The subdivision of a ship resulting from the fitting of longitudinal or fore and aft bulkheads.
Lost Buoyancy. In case of damage to a vessel caused in flooding of a compartment or compartments, the amount by which the reserve buoyancy of the vessel is decreased by such flooding is termed the lost buoyancy. In computing the lost buoyancy for any given case, cognizance is taken of the permeability of any cargo in the compartments flooded and only the net loss of buoyancy is taken, credit being given for the inherent buoyancy of the cargo.
Loud Speaking Telephone. See Telephone, Loudspeaking.
Louver. An opening partially closed with slats, which are fitted diagonally so that they overlap, shutting out the view but allowing the free passage of air. They are frequently constructed in the sides of skylights and fidleys.
Lower Deck. See Deck, Lower.
Lower Deck Stringer. See Stringer, Lower Deck.
Lower Deck Stringer Bar. See Stringer, Bar.
Lower Keel. See Keel, Lower.
Lower Rigging. The shrouds, stays, etc., supporting the lower masts including the running rigging for working their yards and sails.
Lubberís Point. A vertical mark on the inside rim of the card chamber of a compass which is held in coincidence with the point of the compass card indicating the desired course to be steered. The installation of the binnacle is such, that with proper adjustment of this mark, the center of the compass card, and the fore and aft center line of the vessel lie in a vertical plane.
Lubrication. Lubrication is effected in various ways; by means of such devices as grease cups, compressibility cups, wipers and oil cans; by means of manifolds or reservoirs and piping through which the oil flows by gravity to the desired spot; by means of a pump and piping through which the oil is forced to the part to be lubricated.
Lubricating Oil Cooler. See Oil Cooler, Lubricating.
Lubricating Oil Pump. See Pump, Lubricating Oil.
Lucky Bag. A locker on board a naval ship provided as a receptacle for such articles belonging to the crew as are found out of place. The owners of the articles can regain possession of them only by bidding them in at auctions.
Luff Tackle. A purchase consisting of a length of rope, a fixed double and a movable single block.
Lug Piece. A short piece of angle bar used to attach keelsons, girders, stringers, etc., to other structural members.
Lug-Rig. The arrangement of sails peculiar to an English and French type of boats known as loggers which have one, two or three masts with quadrilateral or four cornered fore and aft sails bent to a hoisting yard.
Lug-sail. A sail used in small craft. It is triangular in shape.
Logger. A vessel having from one to three masts rigged with quadrilateral fore-and-aft sails bent to yards.
Lumber, Green. Lumber having about the same moisture content as when cut from live timber.
Lumber, Kiln Dried. Lumber which has been dried by artificial heat.
Lumber, Seasoned. Lumber is seasoned when it has reached a moisture content that is equal to the average condition of the atmosphere without being exposed to artificial heat.
Lumper. An unskilled laborer about a shipyard.
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